Max length: 100.0 cm
Common length: 50.0 cm
Max. published weight: 25.0 kg;
Max. reported age: 25 years

Length at first maturity: range 41 – 54 cm


Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous; depth range 20 – 70 m


Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles.


Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner. Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg. Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked.

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